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   2015| January-June  | Volume 21 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 13, 2015

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Surgical templates for dental implant positioning; current knowledge and clinical perspectives
Mohammed Zaheer Kola, Altaf H Shah, Hesham S Khalil, Ahmed Mahmoud Rabah, Nehad Mohammed H Harby, Seham Ali Sabra, Deepti Raghav
January-June 2015, 21(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152720  PMID:25838757
Dental implants have been used in a variety of different forms for many years. Since the mid-20 th century, there has been an increase in interest in the implant process for the replacement of missing teeth. Branemark was one of the initial pioneers who applied scientifically based research techniques to develop an endosseous implant that forms an immobile connection with bone. The need for a dental implant to completely address multiple physical and biological factors imposes tremendous constraints on the surgical and handling protocol. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have serious shortcomings related to their bony union and the fact that their mechanical properties do not match those of bone. However, anatomic limitation and restorative demands encourage the surgeon to gain precision in planning and surgical positioning of dental implants. Ideal placement of the implant facilitates the establishment of favorable forces on the implants and the prosthetic component as well as ensures an aesthetic outcome. Therefore, it is advisable to establish a logical continuity between the planned restoration and the surgical phases, it is essential to use a transfer device that for sure increases the predictability of success. The surgical guide template is fabricated by a dental technician after the presurgical restorative appointments that primarily include determination of occlusal scheme and implant angulations. Here, authors genuinely attempted to review the evolution and clinical applicability of surgical templates used in the placement of dental implants.
  3,646 289 11
Diathermy versus scalpel incision in a heterogeneous cohort of general surgery patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital
Omobolaji O Ayandipo, Oludolapo O Afuwape, David Irabor, Odunayo M Oluwatosin, Vincent Odigie
January-June 2015, 21(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.153193  PMID:25838766
Background: The anecdotal fear of using cautery for surgical incisions is still common in surgical practice despite recent evidences. The aim of this study is to compare the results of electrocautery and the scalpel in skin incisions. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized double blind study conducted in the Department of Surgery, of a teaching hospital in Ibadan. Patients were randomized to have either scalpel or electrocautery incisions. The duration used in making the skin incision; the incisional blood loss and the ensuing length and depth of the wound were noted. Postoperative pain; duration of wound healing and the occurrence of surgical site infection were also noted. Results: There were 197 patients consisting of the scalpel group (n = 98) and the electrocautery group (n = 99). The ages ranged from 16 to 73 years. The demography, case distribution and body mass index were similar in both groups. The mode of presentation was predominantly elective. The incision time was shorter in the electrocautery group (P < 0.001). The blood loss was less with the diathermy compared to the scalpel (6.53 ± 3.84 ml vs. 18.16 ± 7.36 ml, P < 0.001). The cumulative numerical rating scale score for pain was 12.65 (standard deviation [SD] 8.06) and 17.12 (SD 9.49) in the diathermy and scalpel groups respectively (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in wound infection and wound closure (epithelialization time) (P = 0.206). Conclusion: The use of electrocautery in making skin incision is associated with reduced incision time, incisional blood loss, and postoperative pain.
  2,586 200 4
Spectrum of diseases and diagnostic values of ultrasound in adult patients with nontraumatic acute abdomen in a Nigerian tertiary health facility
Bimbo Ayoola Ashaolu, Mopelola Christianah Asaleye, Adebayo Victor Adetiloye, Isaac Olusegun Alatise
January-June 2015, 21(1):6-12
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152731  PMID:25838758
Aim and Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of disease on abdominal ultrasound (US) and the diagnostic efficacy of US in adult patients with nontraumatic acute abdomen at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Materials and Methods: The study population included consecutive 150 adult patients aged 15 years and above presenting with nontraumatic acute abdomen via the adult emergency unit or as inpatients referred to the Radiology Department of OAUTHC, Ile-Ife for abdominal US. MINDRAY D.C-6 real-time US scanner with 3.5, 5.0, and 7.5 MHz probes and Doppler facilities were used to assess the intra-abdominal organs and the findings were compared with the clinical and surgical findings in those cases that were operated. Results: The common spectrum of diseases encountered on US in this study included appendicitis (66 [44%]), ectopic pregnancy (34 [22%]), intestinal obstruction (13 [8.7%]) while the least finding was renal abscess 1 (0.7%). The correlation of US findings with surgical findings in this study showed sensitivity, specificity, and kappa agreement for appendicitis of 83.3%, 100.0%, and 0.808; ectopic pregnancy of 100.0%, 97.8%, and 0.958; acute cholecystitis of 100.0%, 100.0%, and 1.0. However, perforated viscus showed the least sensitivity (60.0%), specificity (99.2%), and kappa agreement 0.654. All the disease entities showed good kappa agreement beyond chance, and they were all statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study has shown a relatively high sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of US in cases of nontraumatic acute abdomen in a careful hand. We, therefore, recommended that these advantages of US should be capitalized upon in settings where other advanced diagnostic modalities are not available.
  2,465 163 -
The use of nontreated mosquito-net mesh cloth for a tension free inguinal hernia repair: Our experience
Felix O Oribabor, Oluwasegun A Amao, Saheed O Akanni, Samuel O Fatidinu
January-June 2015, 21(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152726  PMID:25838767
Introduction: The prohibitive costs and scarcity of the imported prosthetic mesh for hernioplasty, has prevented its widespread use in most developing countries. We then set out to ascertain the outcome, complications (undue pain, wound infection, recurrence, and mesh extrusion) and cost implications in the use of a nontreated mosquito-net for inguinal hernioplasty. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of all consecutive adult patients with uncomplicated inguinal hernia who were admitted for open herniorrhaphy between January 2012 and December, 2013 at the Federal Medical Centre, Ido - Ekiti, South West, Nigeria. A sheet of the nontreated mosquito-net mesh 10 cm Χ 8 cm, autoclaved, a day prior to surgery was used for each patient's hernia repair. The operation sites were exposed and examined 3 rd and 6 th postoperative days. Findings were documented for analysis. Result: A total of 130 adult patients were recruited for this study of which 115 of the patients were males and 15 were females. Forty-four (41.53%) had inguinal hernia and 76 (58.46%) of them had inguinoscrotal hernia. They all had successful repair and were followed-up for complications for a period of 6 weeks to 6 months at the surgical out-patient department. Conclusion: Locally-sourced and autoclaved mosquito-net mesh is an effective alternative for hernioplasty especially in situations where commercial mesh is not readily available or affordable.
  2,410 126 3
Basal cell ameloblastoma: A rare histological variant of an uncommon tumor
Meela Sridhar, L Raja Bhaskar Reddy, Sagar Kharat, BS Mahesh, Lakshmi Gandi, Ashish Mahendra, Pankhuri Nigam, Parveen Grewal
January-June 2015, 21(1):66-69
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152730  PMID:25838772
Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell adenoma and intra-osseous adenoid cystic carcinoma. This report describes the case of a 27-year-old male with an ameloblastoma in the right posterior mandible. Orthopantomography computed tomography and finally histopathological examination directed us toward the confirmatory diagnosis of basal cell variant of ameloblastoma. Considering the rarity of the lesion and histological paradox regarding its diagnosis, we report here an interesting and rare case of basal cell ameloblastoma of the mandible with emphasis on differential diagnosis from other entities with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis. After surgery, long-term follow-up at regular intervals is recommended as no sufficient statistical information regarding the behavior of this tumor is available.
  2,376 145 4
Basal cell adenoma-clinicopathological, immunohistochemical analysis and surgical considerations of a rare salivary gland tumor with review of literature
AD Bhagat Singh, Swapan Majumdar, Amal Kanti Ghosh, Lakshmi Gandi, Nidhi Choudaha, Ipsita Sharma, SP Pal
January-June 2015, 21(1):31-34
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152723  PMID:25838763
Introduction: Basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the salivary glands is a rare benign salivary gland tumour. Differentiation of BCA from varied entities involving maxillofacial area is mandatory. Aim: To analyze the clinicopathological, histopathologic features, immunohistochemcal analysis and surgical considerations of this rare entity. Materials and Methods: This study included 12 cases of BCA from archives of department reported over the period of 13 years. All the pertaining clinicopathologic features such as incidence, age, sex and site of lesions were assessed. Tissue sections were stained by using panel of immunohistochemical markers, i.e. Pan CK, CK 5/6 and S100, Calponin, p63, CD 117 and smooth muscle actin. Results: BCA was observed in 26-52 years age group (mean age, 38.75 years) with female propensity of 7:5 male to female ratio. It is seen more commonly in parotid gland, followed by upper lip, buccal mucosa and palate. Solid type is the most common histopathologic type followed by tubular, membranous and trabecular. Only one case of membranous type of BCA showed recurrence. Pan CK, CK 5/6 showed strong immunoreactivity, calponin showed moderate staining, p63 and Ki-67 mild staining, whereas CD 117 and SMA showed negative immunostaining. Conclusion: Vigilant comprehensive analysis of all the pertaining clinicopathologic and histopathologic features and immunohistochemical analysis are required for differentiating from other lesions with basaloid differentiation having varying prognosis.
  2,367 131 3
Intra-operative airway management in patients with maxillofacial trauma having reduction and immobilization of facial fractures
Babatunde Babasola Osinaike, Olalere O Gbolahan, Adeola A Olusanya
January-June 2015, 21(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152721  PMID:25838762
Background: Despite advancements in airway management, treatment of fractures in the maxillofacial region under general anesthesia remains a unique anesthetic challenge. We reviewed the pattern of airway management in patients with maxillofacial fractures and assessed those challenges associated with the different airway management techniques employed. Materials and Methods: The anesthetic chart, theatre and maxillofacial operations records of patients who had reduction and immobilization of various maxillofacial fractures over a 2-year period were reviewed. Information obtained included the patient demographics, mechanisms of injury, types of fractures and details about airway management. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS version 17.0 was utilized for all data analysis. Results: Fifty-one patients were recruited during the 2-year study period. Mask ventilation was easy in 80-90% of the patients, 80% had Mallampati three or four, while 4 (7.8%) had laryngoscopy grading of 4. There was no statistically significant difference between the fracture groups in terms of the laryngoscopy grading (P = 0.153) but there was statistical significant difference in the technique of airway management (P = 0.0001). Nasal intubation following direct laryngoscopy was employed in 64.7% of the patients, fiber-optic guided nasal intubation was utilized in only 7.8%. None of the patients had tracheostomy either before or during operative management. Conclusion: Laryngoscopic grading and not adequacy of mouth opening predicted difficult intubation in this group of patients in the immediate preoperative period. Despite the distortions in the anatomy of the upper airway that may result from maxillofacial fractures, nasal intubation following direct laryngoscopy may be possible in many patients with maxillofacial fractures.
  2,304 189 -
Reduction mammoplasty in a developing country: A 10-year review (2001-2010) at the national orthopaedic hospital, Enugu
Chimaobi Isiguzo, Sunday Iheuko Ogbonnaya, Anthonia O Uduezue
January-June 2015, 21(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152719  PMID:25838761
Context: Large breast is a major problem because of associated symptomatology and aesthetic concerns. Reduction mammoplasty (RM) resolves the symptom and at the same time improves the aesthetic appearance of the breast, hence improving self-esteem and social integration. Aims: To describe the pattern of RM in a hospital in the developing world and its impact on postgraduate surgical training. Settings and Design: A retrospective review of all the RMs done in the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu (a major plastic surgery training center in Nigeria) over a ten-year period (2001-2010), in the developing country of Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: All RMs done in the hospital were reviewed after retrieving their records from operation register and medical records department. Fifteen (15) cases were retrieved and analyzed. Data Analysis: Data was analyzed with Microsoft excel 2007. Results: Average age of female patients who had RM was 26.5 years and 83.3% were single. The most common complaint was abnormally large breast (macromastia). Inferior pedicle technique was commonly used. Conclusions: The results of RM are remarkable as it impact positively on the quality of life of the patients. However, the level of awareness about the availability of this service is still low in the region as shown by few cases done over the period of review and this impacts negatively on the training. The need for public awareness cannot be overemphasized.
  2,392 88 1
Laparoscopy may have a role in the drainage of liver abscess: Early experience at Owerri, Nigeria
Christopher N Ekwunife, Ogechukwu Okorie, Ogechukwu Nwobe
January-June 2015, 21(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152724  PMID:25838764
Background: Image-guided percutaneous drainage with antimicrobial agents is the standard modality of treatment of liver abscess. Open surgical drainage, and lately laparoscopic drainage becomes useful in selected patients. Nigeria is awakening late to the laparoscopic surgery revolution. Public health institutions have started making enormous investments in minimal access surgery, which can augment deficient diagnostic capacities. Objective: To describe the outcomes of the patients who underwent laparoscopic liver abscess drainage at the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the laparoscopic liver abscess drainage procedures done between the period September 2007 and December 2012 was done. Results: A total of eight patients in the study period were worked up for abscess surgical drainage based on ultrasound (seven cases) and computed tomography (one case) supported localized collection in the liver. Intraoperatively, one patient was noticed to have nodules on the liver that was later confirmed as hepatocellular carcinoma. Operating time ranged from 37 to 126 min. There was no conversion to open surgery. On the follow-up, one patient had residual abscess of 45 mm diameter size, after 6 weeks, and in whose aspirate acid-fast bacilli were identified. Conclusion: Laparoscopic drainage should be considered in the management of liver abscess.
  2,278 114 -
Abdominal Injuries in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital
Amabra Dodiyi-Manuel, Nze Japhet Jebbin, Patrick Okechukwu Igwe
January-June 2015, 21(1):18-20
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.153191  PMID:25838760
Background: Abdominal injury is relatively common in both civilian and military casualties and remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of injury may be blunt or penetrating. Some would require operative intervention, whereas others may be managed conservatively. Objective: The aim was to determine the pattern and outcome of management of abdominal injuries in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of all patients with abdominal injuries seen and managed in UPTH over a 4-year period (from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012). Relevant data were recorded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Results: Forty-five patients were seen during the study period. There were 40 males (88.9%) and five females (11.1%) making a male to female ratio of 8:1. Their ages ranged from 15 to 45 years with a mean of 27.8 ± 1.6 years and 21 to 30 years was the most commonly affected age group. The mechanism of injury was penetrating in 33 patients (73.3%) and blunt in 12 patients (26.7%). Thirty-four patients (75.6%) had an exploratory laparotomy after resuscitation, while 11 (24.4%) were managed conservatively. Small bowel was the most commonly injured organ following penetrating injury, seen in 14 patients (42.4%) while spleen was the most common in blunt injuries, seen in five patients (41.7%). The most common postoperative complication was surgical site infection, seen in four patients (8.9%). Two patients died giving a mortality rate of 4.4%. Conclusion: Gunshot to the abdomen is the most common cause of abdominal injury in UPTH. Serious campaign and legislation against militant and criminal activities would help to reduce the incidence.
  2,254 119 2
Broomstick injuries to the eye; An emerging cause of blindness among children in Nigeria
Catherine U Ukponmwan, Rita O Momoh
January-June 2015, 21(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.153190  PMID:25838759
Background: Ocular trauma among children is responsible for a high incidence of uni-ocular blindness. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of presentation and complications from broomstick eye injury at University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City with a view to proffering solutions on ways to reduce this trend. Materials and Methods: The hospital records of all consecutive patients who suffered ocular trauma from broomstick injury and presented at the eye clinic of the UBTH between 2003 and 2014 were evaluated. Information retrieved from the case records included social demographic characteristics, interval between the occurrence of injury and presentation, mechanism of injury, activity at time of injury, examination findings, treatments and complications. Data were analyzed using SPSS, IBM, Chicago, USA. Results: A total of 20 eyes in 20 patients were seen. They were all children <14 years old. The mean age was 7.10 ± 4.03 (standard deviation) years. The male: female ratio was 3:1. Twelve children (60%) sustained trauma from broomstick shot as a missile with a rubber band and/or catapult sling by other children and siblings while at play. Ten children (50%) presented within 24 h of occurrence of the injury. Nineteen (95%, n = 19) of the children were blind at presentation in the affected eye with visual acuity ranging from count finger to no light perception. Ninety percent (90%) of the cases were open globe injuries. Only 10% (n = 2) were closed (lamellar) injuries. Most of the patients had multiple complications such as corneal laceration (80%), traumatic cataract (40%), endophthalmitis/panophthalmitis (55%) and orbital cellulitis (15%). Conclusion: Ocular trauma from broomstick results in devastating, penetrating eye injury with loss of vision. Young male children are vulnerable as targets of dangerous game-play. Primary prevention is important by sensitization of caregivers and children of the risks. There is a need for effective supervision of children when at play.
  2,218 113 3
A 5-year review of darning technique of inguinal hernia repair
Olalekan O Olasehinde, Adewale O Adisa, Elugwaraonu A Agbakwuru, Amarachukwu C Etonyeaku, Oladapo A Kolawole, Arinze O Mosanya
January-June 2015, 21(1):52-55
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152722  PMID:25838768
Context: The Darning technique of inguinal hernia repair is a tissue-based technique with documented low recurrence rate in some parts of the world. Though practiced in our setting, little is documented on its outcome. Aims: The aim was to review the outcome of Darning technique of inguinal hernia repair in our setting. Study Design: A descriptive retrospective study. Patients and Methods: Clinical records of all patients who had inguinal hernia repair using the Darning technique between January 2007 and December 2011 in our institution were obtained. Details of sociodemographic data, intraoperative findings and postoperative complications were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: simple frequencies, proportions and cross-tabulations. Results: A total of 132 patients whose ages ranged from 15 to 84 years (mean = 49.4 years) with a male: female ratio of 12:1 were studied. Majority of the hernias were right sided (68.9%), mostly indirect (81.8%). The procedures were for emergencies in 17 (12.9%) cases whereas the rest (87.1%) were done electively. Most procedures, 110 (83.3%) were performed under local anesthesia. Surgical site infection was the most common complication occurring in six patients (4.5%), while four patients (3%) had chronic groin pain. At a mean follow-up period of 15 months there were two recurrences (1.5%) both occurring in patients with bilateral hernias (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The Darning technique of inguinal hernia repair is a safe and effective method for inguinal hernia repair in our setting.
  2,063 144 3
Bullhorn hernia: A rare traumatic abdominal wall hernia
Bimaljot Singh, Ashwani Kumar, Adarshpal Kaur, Rachan Lal Singla
January-June 2015, 21(1):63-65
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152728  PMID:25838771
Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is rare despite the high prevalence of blunt abdominal trauma. Bullhorn hernia occurs as a result of a direct blow to the abdominal wall by the horn of a bull, which disrupts the muscles and fascia and leads to hernia formation. We report a rare case of bullhorn TAWH in a 70-year-old patient who presented with swelling at the left lumbar region. The patient was managed by immediate surgical intervention. A surgeon must have high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this condition as missed hernias in this setting pose a high risk of strangulation and gangrene.
  2,099 101 1
Groin exploration for the nonpalpable testes: A single center experience
Oludayo A Sowande, Ademola O Talabi, Amarachukwu C Etonyeaku, Olusanya Adejuyigbe
January-June 2015, 21(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.153195  PMID:25838769
Background: Management of non-palpable testes in Nigeria can be difficult due to late presentation and poor resources. Surgical exploration is often required for diagnosis and treatment. Aim: This study reviews the management outcome of clinically non-palpable testeis in a tertiary center in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Ten years retrospective review of all clinically non-palpable testes in children aged 2-15years managed at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife Nigeria. Results: Thirty two children with 44 testicular units were managed. The right side was involved in 12 (37.5%); left in 8 (25.0%) and bilateral in 12 (37.5%) patients. Pre-operative ultrasound was done in 12 patients with localization in just 4 patients (33.3% success rate).At groin exploration, 34 (77.32%) testicular units were located in the inguinal canal. Eight patients with 10 The remaining 10 (22.7%) testicular units required additional mini-laparotomy for which six (13.6%) and 4 (9.1%) testicular units respectively were either in the retroperitoneum or not found. Of the testes in the groin, twenty two (64.7%) testicular units were normal while 12 (35.3%) were atrophic. Four of the retroperitoneal testes were normal while 2 were atrophic. Eight (22.5%) testicular units among the inguinal group had multi-staged orchidopexy; while 2 each of the retroperitoneal group had orchidectomy,one stage orchidopexy, two staged Fowler Stephens (F-S) procedure or lost to follow up after first stage of F-S procedure. Mean follow up period was 2 months. 2 testicular units each had retracted or vanished respectively during follow up. Conclusion: Groin exploration still offers a viable approach Surgical exploration is still useful in to the management of non-palpable testes in low resource environment despite the lack of laparoscopy.
  1,999 90 1
Patterns, severity, and management of maxillofacial injuries in a suburban south western Nigeria tertiary center
Stella Aimiede Ogunmuyiwa, Olalere Omoyosola Gbolahan, Abiodun Abraham Ayantunde, Adenike Abidemi Odewabi
January-June 2015, 21(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.152732  PMID:25838765
Background: Trauma remains a leading cause of maxillofacial injury globally. Changing etiological factors and patterns of maxillofacial injury continue to be reported and are largely modulated by socio-geographic and environmental factors. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the pattern and etiology in a particular region before effective preventive measures can be developed. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the patterns, etiological factors, and management of maxillofacial injuries in Ogun state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A prospective descriptive cohort study of all consecutive patients that presented with maxillofacial injuries at our center between January and December 2013. Information about demographic data, types of maxillofacial and associated injury, etiology of injury, treatment received and complications were collected and analyzed. Results: Seventy patients presented with maxillofacial injury during the study period with a male to female ratio of 4:1. The age range was 9 months to 60 years with a mean of 30.11 ΁ standard deviation 14.97 years. Majority of the facial fractures were due to motorcycle related crashes. There were 57.1% mandibular fractures and 55.7% middle third fractures. Closed reduction with maxillo-mandibular fixation was the major method of treatment of facial fractures. Postoperative complications were observed in 11.4% of patients. Conclusion: Road traffic crashes (RTCs) remain the leading etiological factor of maxillofacial injuries in our center. Enforcement of stricter traffic regulations and possibly replacement of motorcycles with tricycles for commercial transportation may help to reduce the incidence of RTCs.
  1,873 164 -
Retrograde Jejuno-gastric Intussusception
Sumitoj Singh, Arvinder Singh, Suman Bhagat, Baldev Singh
January-June 2015, 21(1):70-72
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.153197  PMID:25838773
Retrograde jejuno-gastric intussusception is a rare complication following gastric surgery. We present a case of retrograde jejuno-gastric intussusception in a 42-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, vomiting and swelling in left hypochondruim. Intussusception was suspected on ultrasound of the abdomen and later confirmed with computed tomography scan. At laparotomy, efferent loop was intussuscepting into stomach. This was reduced and fixed to the abdominal wall and transverse mesocolon. It should be suspected in a patient with the previous history of gastric surgery as it is a rare complication. Early diagnosis and management can prevent further complications like bowel gangrene and its associated morbidity and mortality.
  1,853 96 2
Muscular variations during axillary dissection: A clinical study in fifty patients
Upasna , Ashwani Kumar, Bimaljot Singh, Subhash Kaushal
January-June 2015, 21(1):60-62
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.153196  PMID:25838770
Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the musculature variations during axillary dissection for breast cancer surgery. Methods: The anatomy of axilla regarding muscular variations was studied in 50 patients who had an axillary dissection for the staging and treatment of invasive primary breast cancer over one year. Results: In a period of one year, two patients (4%) with axillary arch and one patient (2%) with absent pectoralis major and minor muscles among fifty patients undergoing axillary surgery for breast cancer were identified. Conclusions: Axillary arch when present should always be identified and formally divided to allow adequate exposure of axillary contents, in order to achieve a complete lymphatic dissection. Complete absence of pectoralis major and minor muscles precludes the insertion of breast implants and worsens the prognosis of breast cancer.
  1,778 90 1
Book of Abstracts 65 TH Scientific Meeting of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society

January-June 2015, 21(1):73-78
  1,285 85 -
10TH Scientific Meeting of the Association Surgeons of Nigeria

January-June 2015, 21(1):78-82
  1,238 67 -