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   2015| July-December  | Volume 21 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 17, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A survey of the awareness of prostate cancer and its screening among men attending the outpatient clinics of a tertiary health center in Lagos, Nigeria
Sunday Oladunjoye Ogundele, Stephen Odunayo Ikuerowo
July-December 2015, 21(2):115-118
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162589  
Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among Nigerian men and the second most common cause of death from cancer in men worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of prostate cancer among men attending the various outpatients' clinics of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Self-administered structured questionnaires were used to collect information from consecutives patients attending the various outpatient clinics of the hospital. Results: One hundred and forty-six respondents with an age range of 40–80 years participated in this study. Sixty-nine (47.3%) respondents were aware of prostate cancer while 77 (52.7%) have never heard of the disease. Twenty (13.7%) participants were aware of the availability of a screening test for the disease and only 12 (8.2%) have had any form of screening for prostate cancer. Conclusion: There is a low level of awareness of prostate cancer among patients seen at our center and also level of voluntary screening for the disease is low.
  3,944 288 1
Endoscopic evaluation of upper and lower gastro-intestinal bleeding
Emeka Ray-Offor, Solomon N Elenwo
July-December 2015, 21(2):106-110
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162575  
Introduction: A myriad of pathologies lead to gastro-intestinal bleeding (GIB). The common clinical presentations are hematemesis, melena, and hematochezia. Endoscopy aids localization and treatment of these lesions. Aims: The aim was to study the differential diagnosis of GIB emphasizing the role of endoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of patients with GIB referred to the Endoscopy unit of two health facilities in Port Harcourt Nigeria from February 2012 to August 2014. The variables studied included: Demographics, clinical presentation, risk score, endoscopic findings, therapeutic procedure, and outcome. Data were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Results: A total of 159 upper and lower gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopies were performed during the study period with 59 cases of GI bleeding. There were 50 males and 9 females with an age range of 13-86 years (mean age 52.4 ΁ 20.6 years). The primary presentations were hematochezia, hematemesis, and melena in 44 (75%), 9 (15%), and 6 (10%) cases, respectively. Hemorrhoids were the leading cause of lower GIB seen in 15 cases (41%). The majority of pathologies in upper GIB were seen in the stomach (39%): Gastritis and benign gastric ulcer. Injection sclerotherapy was successfully performed in the hemorrhoids and a case of gastric varices. The mortality recorded was 0%. Conclusion: Endoscopy is vital in the diagnosis and treatment of GIB. Gastritis and Haemorrhoid are the most common causes of upper and lower GI bleeding respectively, in our environment
  2,070 118 1
Management of chest drains: A national survey on surgeons-in-training experience and practice
Emeka B Kesieme, Olugbenga Olusoji, Ismail Mohammed Inuwa, Chukwuma Innocent Ngene, Eghosa Aigbe
July-December 2015, 21(2):91-95
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162569  
Background: Chest tube insertion is a simple and sometimes life-saving procedure performed mainly by surgical residents. However with inadequate knowledge and poor expertise, complications may be life threatening. Objective: We aimed to determine the level of experience and expertise of resident surgeons in performing tube thoracostomy. Methodology: Four tertiary institutions were selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 90 residents after obtaining consent. Results: The majority of respondents were between 31 and 35 years. About 10% of respondents have not observed or performed tube thoracostomy while 77.8% of respondents performed tube thoracostomy for thefirst time during residency training. The mean score was 6.2 ± 2.2 and 59.3% of respondents exhibited good experience and practice. Rotation through cardiothoracic surgery had an effect on the score (P = 0.034). About 80.2% always obtained consent while 50.6% always used the blunt technique of insertion. About 61.7% of respondents routinely inserted a chest drain in the Triangle of safety. Only 27.2% of respondents utilized different sizes of chest tubes for different pathologies. Most respondents removed chest drains when the output is <50 mL. Twenty-six respondents (32.1%) always monitored air leak before removal of tubes in cases of pneumothorax. Superficial surgical site infection, tube dislodgement, and tube blockage were the most common complications. Conclusion: Many of the surgical resident lack adequate expertise in this lifesaving procedure and they lose the opportunity to learn it as interns. There is a need to stress the need to acquire this skill early, to further educate and evaluate them to avoid complications.
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Posterior urethral valves in children: Pattern of presentation and outcome of initial treatment in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Ademola Olusegun Talabi, Oludayo Adedapo Sowande, Amarachukwu Chiduziem Etonyeaku, Abdulkadir A Salako, Olusanya Adejuyigbe
July-December 2015, 21(2):151-156
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162591  
Background: The management of posterior urethral valves (PUV) and its sequelae is still a challenge to most pediatric surgeons in our environment due to late presentation and inadequate facilities for long-term evaluation and treatment. Despite initial successful treatment about 40% would develop chronic renal failure. The aim is to describe the presentation, management and outcome of the initial treatment in boys with PUV. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of PUV in boys 8 years and below over a 17 years period. Demographic characteristics, clinical features, investigations, and treatment outcome were reviewed. Results: Thirty-seven cases were analyzed. The median age was 5 months (range from birth to 8 years). Three (8.1%) patients had prenatal ultrasound diagnosis. The most common presentation was voiding dysfunction 37 (100%). Part of the preoperative investigation included micturating cystourethrogram (n = 31: 83.8%) and abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography (n = 37:(100%). The mean serum creatinine value of those who presented within thefirst 30 days of life and those who presented afterwards were 325 (±251) µmol/L and 141 (±100) µmol/L respectively, P = 0.003. Surgical interventions included trans-vesical excision of valves (n = 9: 28.1%), valvotomy (n = 10: 31.3%), balloon avulsion (n = 8: 25.0%), vesicostomy (n = 4: 12.5%) and endoscopic valve avulsion (n = 1: 3.1%). Seventeen (56.7%) patients had serum creatinine >70.4 µmol/L after 1-month of valve excision. Five (13.5%) patients had postrelief complications and 5 (13.5%) died on admission. Ninety percentage (27/30) of patients had poor prognostic indices. Conclusions: The initial treatment outcome was good but most had poor prognostic factors.
  1,963 121 1
Ethnicity and prostate cancer in Southern Nigeria: A preliminary report
Monday K Sapira, Ndubuisi Eke, Alexander ME Nwofor
July-December 2015, 21(2):96-101
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162590  
Introduction: The natural history of prostate cancer varies among patients. The aim of this study is to detect any variations in clinical and pathological characteristics of the tumor in patients from different ethnic groups in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients who presented with features of prostatic diseases at the Urology Units of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt and Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, were evaluated prospectively with history, physical examination, and relevant investigations using a proforma. Data obtained were collated and analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and Microsoft Excel. Results: Of 187 patients studied, 169 were analyzed. Eighty-six were Ibos, 31 Ijaws, 25 Ikwerres, and 12 Ogonis. Two were from each Etche, Urhobo, Opobo, and Effik; 4 from Andoni, and 3 Ibibio. Fifty-seven (66.3%) Ibos presented with the disease at higher ages (70–80 years) than 19 (61.3%) Ijaws and 11 (91.7%) Ogonis. These age differences were statistically significant with 95% and 99.9% confidence, respectively. All cases were adenocarcinomas. Clinical features, pattern of serum prostate-specific antigen levels, grades of the tumors, tumor metastases, and complications were similar for all ethnic groups. Although more Ibos had tumors with relatively more aggressive metastatic features, there was no statistical significance. Conclusion: Clinical and pathological features of adenocarcinoma of the prostate in Ibos, Ikwerres, Ijaws, and Ogonis were found to be similar. However, Ibos presented with the disease at older ages than Ijaws and Ogonis.
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Regional myocutaneous flaps for head and neck reconstruction: Experience of a head and neck cancer unit
Eyituoyo Okoturo
July-December 2015, 21(2):85-90
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162568  
Background: Pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicle flap and other regional myocutaneous pedicle flaps (RMF), despite the superiority shown by free flaps, have remained relevant in the reconstruction of major head and neck oncologic defects. It has continued to find relevance as the preferred reconstruction of choice in some general head and neck reconstructive applications. While its role has been defined in developed environment, the same cannot be said for developing environment. The aim thus, was to review our experiences with RMFs in head and neck reconstructions, with a view to evaluating the indications and outcomes in a limited opportunity environment with some free flaps expertise. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study from records of RMF cases performed for head and neck reconstruction, at the study institution. Eligibility for study inclusion comprised case cohorts with advanced head and neck diseases requiring ablative surgery and reconstruction with pectoralis major flaps and other RMFs. Results: A total of 17 cases were treated with RMFs. 10 were pectoralis major flaps while 7 were other RMFs. The main indications were failed free flaps and financial constraints. No regional pedicle flap failure was recorded; however, complication rate was 35.5% (6/17). Conclusion: Pectoralis major flaps and other RMFs were very reliable option for head and neck reconstruction. Free flap failure and financial constraints were the main indications for RMF reconstruction indications in head and neck reconstruction in a developing environment with some free flap expertise.
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Preoperative ultrasonography as a predictor of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy that requires conversion to open procedure
Prem Chand, Rommel Singh, Bimaljot Singh, Rachan Lal Singla, Manish Yadav
July-December 2015, 21(2):102-105
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162573  
Aim: The present study was conducted to see whether preoperative ultrasonography can be used as a predictor of difficult lapariscopic cholecystectomy or not. Methods: 50 patients of cholelithiasis, selected from surgical OPD of Rajindra Hospital Patiala, who fulfilled all inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study underwent elective cholecystectomy. Ultrasonography was done pre-operatively on all cases in the same setup and with same probe and patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in same setup. Results: A significant prediction was found between ultrasonographic parameters and conversion of the procedure to open cholecystectomy which proved that pre-operative ultrasonography is a good predictor of difficulty in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in majority of the cases and should be used as a screening procedure. Conclusion: Preoperative ultrasonography should be used as a screening procedure as it is a good predictor of difficulty in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in majority of the cases. It can help surgeon to get an idea of potential difficulty that he can face in the particular patient.
  1,618 136 1
Preoperative prediction of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A scoring method
Nikhil Agrawal, Sumitoj Singh, Sudhir Khichy
July-December 2015, 21(2):130-133
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162567  
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the procedure of choice for management of symptomatic gallstone disease. At times, it is difficult and takes longer time or has to be converted to an open procedure. This study is undertaken to determine the predictive factors for difficult LC. Aim: The aim was to evaluate a scoring method to predict difficult LC preoperatively. Materials and Methods: There were 30 cases operated by a single experienced surgeon. There are total 15 score from history, clinical and sonological findings. Score up to 5 predicted easy, 6-10 difficult and >10 are very difficult. Results: Prediction came true in 76.4% for easy and 100% difficult cases; there were no cases with a score above 10. The factors like previous history of hospitalization (P - 0.004), clinically palpable gallbladder (GB) (P - 0.009), impacted GB stone (P - 0.001), pericholecystic collection (P - 0.04), and abdominal scar due to previous abdominal surgery (P - 0.009) were found statistically significant in predicting difficult LC. Conclusion: The proposed scoring system is reliable with a sensitivity of 76.47% and specificity of 100%.
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The utility of digital rectal examination in estimating prostate volume in a rural hospital setting
EI Udeh, NK Dakum, SA Aderibigbe, JA Edeh
July-December 2015, 21(2):111-114
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162570  
Objectives: To determine the correlation between prostate volume estimated by digital rectal examination (DRE) and that estimated by abdominal ultrasound in the same patients. Patients and Methods: Men who presented to our urology outpatient clinic with lower urinary tract symptoms were recruited in this study. We estimated the prostate size by digital rectal examination using the sliding scale as a guide and subsequently measured the prostate volume by transabdominal ultrasound. Results: A total of 100 patients completed this study. The mean age was 65.6 ± 9.84 years. The Kappa's reliability test comparing the prostate size estimated by DRE and the prostate size measured by transabdominal ultrasound was 0.579832, the Kappa's standard error was 0.097768 and Kappa's tvalue was 5.93. The Kappa's reliability test fell into good agreement range (0.4–0.75). This is further validated by the Pearson's correlation test ascertaining correlation between Ultrasound and DRE and generated a correlation coefficient® of 0.59 (P = 0.00). This implies a high positive correlation between ultrasound estimated prostate volume and that estimated by DRE that is statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Estimation of prostate volume by digital rectal examination is reliable. This is very important in an environment where esoteric laboratory facilities are not readily available, and the clinician has to depend mainly on his clinical acumen.
  1,558 77 1
Long-term outcome of endoprosthetic replacement for proximal femur giant cell tumor
Gurinder Singh Gosal, Avneet Boparai, Gurpreet Singh Makkar
July-December 2015, 21(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162583  
Introduction: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is locally aggressive benign tumor involving the epiphysis of long bones in young adults. Various treatment options include intralesional curettage, extended curettage, wide resection, resection and reconstruction and amputation. The main variables to be considered for planning treatment include the site of involvement and Campanacci stage of the tumor. Functional and oncological outcomes of these treatment options vary widely, the predominant detrimental factor being tumor recurrence rate. Aim: A study was conducted to evaluate the long-term oncological and functional outcome of patients with GCT of the proximal femur that underwent tumor resection and endoprosthetic replacement. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients with Campanacci stage-III GCT of proximal femur who underwent wide excision of tumor and endoprosthesis replacement with a mean follow-up the duration of 10.6 years were assessed using standard proforma. The treatment outcome was evaluated using the Revised Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Rating Scale for the lower extremity. Results: At mean follow-up the duration of 10.6 years, none of the cases had tumor recurrence, infection, prosthesis loosening or dislocation. All the patients were community ambulators among whom eight patients were walking without support while three patients were using a cane for support. The mean total Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 26.8 out of 30 indicating the good outcome. Conclusions: The authors recommend that wide resection and endoprosthetic replacement should be considered as a preferred treatment option for proximal femur GCT as the functional, and oncological outcome is satisfactory with this modality of treatment.
  1,537 71 3
Early experience with stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses in a Nigerian hospital
AO Adisa, O Olasehinde, OA Arowolo, OI Alatise, EA Agbakwuru
July-December 2015, 21(2):140-142
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162584  
Background: Hand-sewn gastrointestinal anastomoses has been the traditional approach to gastrointestinal anastomosis in Nigeria while stapled anastomoses are infrequently performed in few centers. Objectives: To describe the outcome of our initial experience with stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses in a semi-urban patient population. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients who had stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses between January 2011 and June 2014 in a Nigerian tertiary hospital were prospectively evaluated. Indications for operation, procedures performed and anastomoses constructed and postoperative outcome of each patient were documented. Results: Nineteen patients including seven males and 12 females had stapled anastomoses within the period. Their ages ranged between 41 and 68 (mean 52.5) years. Six (31.6%) Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomies, 6 (31.6%) ileo-colic, 3 (15.8%) ileo-ileal, 2 (10.5%) colo-colic, and 2 (10.5%) colo-anal anastomoses were performed. Indications include antral gastric cancer in 4 (21.1%), right colon cancer 4 (21.1%), ileal perforations in 3 (15.8%) while 2 (10.5%) each had left colon cancer, common bile duct obstruction, rectal cancer and ruptured appendix. Mean duration of operation was 108 ± 46 min and mean duration of postoperative stay was 5 ± 2.6 days. No intraoperative complications were recorded and no anastomotic leakage occurred. At a median follow-up of 5 months no staple related stricture had occurred. Conclusions: Stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses are associated with a good outcome in our center. We propose a prospective, large-population randomized comparison of the technique with hand-sewn anastomoses.
  1,500 54 1
Clinical parameters and challenges of managing cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis in a Sub-Saharan tertiary hospital
Adeola A Olusanya, Olalere O Gbolahan, Timothy O Aladelusi, Victor I Akinmoladun, Juwon T Arotiba
July-December 2015, 21(2):134-139
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162572  
Introduction: Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe soft tissue infection. In our environment, patients presenting with this infection are usually financially incapacitated and, therefore, their management can be challenging. This paper aimed to document the pattern and challenges encountered in the management of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) in the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Materials and Methods: Information such as biodata, site of infection, systemic conditions, widest span of defect, management provided, hospital stay, and outcome of management was prospectively collected on all patients with CNF who presented at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery between January 2007 and December 2013. The patients were managed according to a devised protocol of antibiotic therapy, serial debridement and honey dressings. Results: Twenty-four cases of CNF were seen. There were 9 males and 15 females while 70.9% of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic class. The mean span of wound defect was 12.2 (±8.844) cm. The mean hospital stay was 27.8 (±23.1) days, and scar formation was the most common complication encountered. Conclusion: Our study represents the largest series of CNF from a Nigerian health facility presently. The management of necrotizing fascitis in the maxillofacial region poses a significant challenge to both the surgeon and the patient. However, the mortality rate of CNF in our center appears comparatively low.
  1,476 73 2
Does improvised waterbed reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal injury?
Jude-Kennedy C Emejulu, Uchenna V Nwadi, Henry O Obiegbu
July-December 2015, 21(2):119-123
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162571  
Background: Pressure ulcers are lesions caused by unrelieved pressure over bony prominences, resulting in damage to underlying tissues. The etiology is multifactorial including prolonged immobility. They usually complicate spinal cord injuries with long periods of bed confinement. The use of bed replacements markedly reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers, but the unaffordability of these replacements in low-income countries has necessitated the need to explore cheaper alternatives. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the use of our cheap and locally improvised waterbeds would reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients on prolonged bed confinement due to spinal injury. Methodology: Over a 16-month period, 51 patients (age range 1-80 years) with spinal injuries were managed conservatively in our service using improvised waterbeds in 21 (41.2%), while using the regular hospital bed/foam in 30 (58.8%). Biodata, the time interval between injury and presentation to the hospital, nature of the injury, use of improvised waterbed and development of pressure ulcer, were collected, collated, and analyzed. Statistical significance was calculated with the Chi-square test. Results: Most were males (98%), in the age range of 21-30 years (25.5%), and due to fall from heights (35.3%). Of 21 patients who were managed on improvised waterbeds, 6 (28.6%) had pressure ulcers, and of the 30 who did not use the waterbed, 17 (56.7%) developed ulcers. The c2 = 3.9381, while P = 0.0472. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The improvised waterbed, which is much cheaper than the standard waterbed, was observed to have significantly reduced the incidence of pressure ulcers among our patients. Nonetheless, further studies would still be needed to confirm this observation.
  1,375 61 -
CASE REPORT
Carotid body tumor presenting as parotid swelling misdiagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma: A rare presentation
Prem Chand, Rommel Singh, Bimaljot Singh, Rachan Lal Singla
July-December 2015, 21(2):157-158
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162588  
Carotid body tumor (CBT) also known as chemodectoma is a rare tumor of neuroendocrine tissue of carotid body and is the most commonly seen jugular paraganglioma. In most cases, it is benign but it can be malignant. Extra adrenal paraganglioma is rare. We present such a rare case where unusual presentation of chemodectoma was seen as a parotid swelling. This swelling was misdiagnosed as a pleomorphic adenoma on clinical examination, ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology and superficial parotidectomy was done for the same, but on histopathological examination it was found to be CBT presenting as a parotid swelling.
  1,371 63 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
One-stage anastomotic urethroplasty for traumatic urethral strictures. January 2004-January 2013
Charles Azuwike Odoemene, Philip Okere
July-December 2015, 21(2):124-129
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162574  
Purpose: One-stage anastomotic urethroplasty is an attractive procedure for reconstructing the urethra following trauma. This prospective study highlights the advantages of the procedure and outcome of treatment. Materials and Methods : A total of 87 patients, age range 11-68 years with a mean of 35.4 years were included in the study. These patients were seen at two tertiary Institutions in South East Nigeria. The stricture lengths varied between 0.8 cm and 3.2 cm. All had suprapubic cystostomy initially followed by an end to end perineal anastomosis after thorough work up. Preoperatively 9 (10.3%) patients had impotence from the trauma. Postoperatively the patients were assessed with peri-catheter retrograde urethrogram, micturating cystourethrogram, and uroflowmetery. Results : All the patients were males. At 6 months, 13 out of 21 (62%) patients who had bulbo-prostatic anastomosis and 62 out of 66 (94%) patients that had bulbo-membranous, bulbo-bulbar anastomosis had satisfactory micturition with urine flow rate >15 ml/s. Totally, 12 (13.8%) patients had urine flow rate of <12 ml/s. At 1-year, there were 12 re-strictures, no urinary incontinence and four cases of a decrease in the strength of penile erection that needed no treatment. Conclusion : Delayed one-stage anastomotic urethroplasty provides for decreased incidence of postoperative morbidity, re-stricture, impotence and urinary incontinence for most short segment posttraumatic urethral strictures.
  1,306 77 -
Urethroplasty practices among reconstructive urologists in Nigeria
Chidi K Oranusi, AME Nwofor, JC Orakwe
July-December 2015, 21(2):146-150
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.162582  
Objectives: To determine the national practice patterns in the management of male urethral stricture disease by the open urethroplasty technique. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based national survey of Nigerian urologists was performed during the 19th Annual General Meeting and Scientific Conference of the National Association of Urological Surgeons of Nigeria, held at Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria in 2013. Results: A total of 55 respondents (67.1%) completed the questionnaire. About 43.6% were between the ages of 40 and 49 years. Almost 41.8% had between 5 and 9 years of experience as a reconstructive urologist, and 50.9% performed 1–9 urethroplasties/year. A total of 80 responders reported trauma as the most common etiology for their strictures. About 63.7% preferred to treat strictures after 3–6 months of diagnosis and 67.3% of respondents preferred the combination of retrograde urethrography and voiding cystourethrography for the diagnosis of urethral stricture. Stenting of the urethra was done after urethroplasty using size 16 Fr of 18 Fr silastic catheter; however, the duration of stenting varied among urologists. About 41.8% followed up their patients for a year, and uroflowmetry was used by 36.6% of the responders to follow-up their patients. Stricture recurrence was the most common reported complication by 36.4% of the respondents. Conclusions: In Nigeria, most urethral stricture diseases are treated by open urethroplasties. Very few of these surgeries are performed annually by young urologists. There is no uniformity in the method of diagnosis, stenting, and follow-up after treatment.
  1,249 59 -
ABSTRACTS
Nigeria Journal of Surgery Enugu Abstracts

July-December 2015, 21(2):159-163
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