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  Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 71-74  

Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the small intestine presenting as spontaneous hemoperitoneum – A rare case report


Department of General Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India

Date of Submission01-Nov-2019
Date of Decision24-Jan-2020
Date of Acceptance26-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication09-Mar-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. H Sakthivel
Department of General Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry - 605 008
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njs.NJS_55_19

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  Abstract 


Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm arising from the antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. It usually involves the lymph nodes, and extranodal sites are rarely affected. Here, we report a first known case of spontaneous hemoperitoneum caused by the rupture of IDCS of the small bowel. A 61-year-old male presented with complaints of abdominal pain and fever for 3 days and breathlessness for 1 day. Ultrasound abdomen revealed a 15 cm × 7 cm heterogeneous collection with thick septations in the periumbilical region. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage revealed hemoperitoneum and gangrenous bowel. Emergency laprotomy was done and it revealed a friable mass arising from the ileum. Resection of 2 ft of the ileum and double-barrel ileostomy was done. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a positivity of S100 and leukocyte common antigen). A diagnosis of IDCS was made. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and planned for postoperative chemotherapy.

Keywords: Immunohistochemistry, interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, spontaneous hemoperitoneum


How to cite this article:
Karthikeyan R, Sakthivel H, Rajkumar N, Srinivasan K. Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the small intestine presenting as spontaneous hemoperitoneum – A rare case report. Niger J Surg 2021;27:71-4

How to cite this URL:
Karthikeyan R, Sakthivel H, Rajkumar N, Srinivasan K. Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the small intestine presenting as spontaneous hemoperitoneum – A rare case report. Niger J Surg [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 26];27:71-4. Available from: https://www.nigerianjsurg.com/text.asp?2021/27/1/71/311018




  Introduction Top


Dendritic cells are immune accessory cells derived from the hematopoietic stem cells. There are four types of dendritic cells present in lymph nodes: follicular, interdigitating, Langerhans, and fibroblastic/histolytic cells. Interdigitating cells are commonly located in the T-cell-rich areas of peripheral lymphoid tissue.[1] Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is a rare neoplasm with only 100 cases reported in the English literature.[2],[3] Although this tumor mostly arises in the lymph nodes, the extranodal sites such as spleen, small intestine, tonsil, nasopharynx, testis, and urinary tract are also noted.[1],[2] To our knowledge, only few cases of the IDCS arising from the small intestine have been reported till date. Based on the findings from previous studies, patients with intestinal involvement tend to be presented with intestinal obstruction.[2],[4] However, we report a first known case of IDCS of ileum presenting as spontaneous hemoperitoneum.


  Case Report Top


A 61-year-old male presented to the emergency department with complaints of lower abdominal pain, fever, and vomiting for 3 days and breathlessness for 1 day. There was no history of trauma. Medical history was significant for essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus which had been controlled with oral drugs. Family history was negative for malignancy. His physical examination revealed tenderness in the lower abdomen without any palpable abdominal mass. Bowel sounds were absent. Digital examination showed a normal fecal staining. His laboratory tests were normal except for anemia (4.5g/dl). Ultrasound abdomen revealed 15 cm × 7 cm heterogeneous collection with thick septations in the periumbilical region. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage revealed hemoperitoneum and gangrenous bowel. Emergency laprotomy was done. A friable mass is seen arising from the distal ileum about 2 ft from the ileocecal junction [Figure 1]. Resection of 2 ft of the ileum and double barrel ileostomy was done [Figure 2]. After adequate irrigation of the peritoneal cavity, the abdomen is closed by anatomical layers. Microscopically, the tumor cells were seen scattered in the subserosal aspect. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the tumor cells were positive for leukocyte common antigen, CD 68, and S100 [Figure 3]. A diagnosis of the IDCS was made based on histological and immunohistochemical findings.
Figure 1: The intraoperative view showing tumor arising from the terminal ileum

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Figure 2: Resected part of the ileum showing friable mass

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Figure 3: (a) The cut surface of the specimen revealing central white mass with surrounding hemorrhage. (b) Microscopic examination (×100) showing tumor cells scattered in subserosal aspect. (c) Immunohistochemical staining showing tumor cells are positive for leukocyte common antigen. (d) Immunohistochemical staining showing tumor cells are positive for S100

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  Discussion Top


Spontaneous hemoperitoneum is a rare but life-threatening complication that is defined as blood within the peritoneal cavity of nontraumatic etiology. It most commonly arises from hepatic, splenic, vascular, or gynecologic pathology, and usually in anticoagulated or coagulopathic patients.[5] Spontaneous hemoperitoneum caused by the rupture of tumors of the intestine is a rare entity.

Dendritic cell neoplasms are extremely rare tumors arising from the reticular cells, which participate in immune response as antigen-presenting cells that stimulate T-lymphocyte. The WHO classified dendritic cell neoplasms into five groups: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Langerhans cell sarcoma, interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, and not specified otherwise.[6] IDCS is the most aggressive form among all the types.[4] The median age at diagnosis is 56.5 years with slight male predilection (male-to-female ratio of 1.38:1). It mostly occurs in the lymph nodes; however, extranodal sites such as nasopharynx, small intestine, skin, testis, ovary, urinary bladder, tonsils, and pleura have also been reported.[2],[7] Local disease and no necrosis are found to be related with a better prognosis, while young age, tumors measuring ≥5 cm in diameter,[4] intraabdominal lesion, and combined nodal/extranodal involvement indicate an adverse outcome of patients.

Dendritic cell sarcomas should be differentiated from other histiocytic and dendritic neoplasms as well as from melanoma and fibroblastic reticular tumors. The diagnosis cannot be made with clinical and light microscopy alone. Immunohistochemistry helps in achieving the diagnosis. In our case, the tumor cells stained positive for S100, myeloid cell marker CD68, and the leukocyte common antigen which is consistent with the previous reports describing IDCS,[4],[8] as well as negative for CD1a (LCS marker), CD3 (T-cell marker), CD20 (B-cell marker), HMB45 (melanoma marker), or cytokeratin (epithelial cell marker).

After a thorough review of the literature, we have found only eight cases of IDCS[4] involving the intestinal tract [Table 1].[15] The small intestine was the common site, and most of the cases were presented with intestinal obstruction. However, we report a first known case of spontaneous hemoperitoneum caused by the rupture of IDCS of ileum.
Table 1: Summary of the interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma involving the intestinal tract

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There are no standard treatment guidelines for the treatment of IDCS owing to its rarity. IDCS is treated with surgical excision, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these therapies. In localized IDCS, surgical resection is the main stay of the treatment. Adjuvant radiotherapy has shown to prolong disease survival rates in some studies.[6],[7] Most of the advanced cases, which survived for several years, were treated with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.[4] Several chemotherapeutic agents have been tried, including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone; doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine; dexamethasone, cisplatin, and high-dose cytarabine; and ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide.[6],[7] In our case, the patient was advised chemotherapy but he refused citing age as a factor. After 6-month follow-up, there was no recurrence and the patient was planned for the restoration of intestinal continuity.

Our case report describes the first known case of IDCS of the small intestine presenting as spontaneous hemoperitoneum. IDCS is a rare neoplasm, and extranodal IDCS is more uncommon than the nodal presentation. Besides, clinical picture and light microscopy, immunohistochemistry plays an important role in arriving at the diagnosis. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for localized disease. The role of adjuvant, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in metastatic disease is still not clearly defined.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank Dr. Vigneshwaran VB for significant contributions in copyediting the article.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Han HS, Lee OJ, Lim SN, An JY, Lee KM, Choe KH, et al. Extranodal interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma presenting in the pleura: A case report. J Korean Med Sci 2011;26:304-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Saygin C, Uzunaslan D, Ozguroglu M, Senocak M, Tuzuner N. Dendritic cell sarcoma: A pooled analysis including 462 cases with presentation of our case series. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2013;88:253-71.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Xue T, Jiang XN, Wang WG, Zhou XY, Li XQ. Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma: Clinicopathologic study of 8 cases with review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol 2018;34:155-60.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ishihara S, Honda Y, Asato T, Nonaka M, Nakagawa S, Hirashima K, et al. Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the ileum recurred in multiple lymph nodes and duodenum three years after operation without chemotherapy. Pathol Res Pract 2010;206:514-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kasotakis G. Spontaneous hemoperitoneum. Surg Clin North Am 2014;94:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Madabhavi I, Patel A, Modi G, Anand A, Panchal H, Parikh S. Interdigitating dendritic cell tumor: A rare case report with review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther 2018;14:690-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mahamid A, Alfici R, Troitsa A, Anderman S, Groisman G, Zeina AR. Small intestine perforation due to metastatic uterine cervix interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma: A rare manifestation of a rare disease. Rare Tumors 2011;3:e46.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Olnes MJ, Nicol T, Duncan M, Bohlman M, Erlich R. Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma: A rare malignancy responsive to ABVD chemotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma 2002;43:817-21.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Daum GS, Liepman M, Woda BA. Dendritic cell phenotype in localized malignant histiocytosis of the small intestine. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1985;109:647-50.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Miettinen M, Fletcher CD, Lasota J. True histiocytic lymphoma of small intestine. Analysis of two S-100 protein-positive cases with features of interdigitating reticulum cell sarcoma. Am J Clin Pathol 1993;100:285-92.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Banner B, Beauchamp ML, Liepman M, Woda BA. Interdigitating reticulum-cell sarcoma of the intestine: A case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 1997;17:216-22.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Kanaan H, Al-Maghrabi J, Linjawi A, Al-Abbassi A, Dandan A, Haider AR. Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the duodenum with rapidly fatal course: A case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2006;130:205-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Shibutani M, Teraoka H, Nakao S, Tamamori Y, Nitta A, Chikugo T. A case of interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the rectum. Jap J Gastroenterol Surg 2010;43:857-62.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Nonaka K, Honda Y, Gushima R, Maki Y, Sakurai K, Iyama K, et al. Narrow-band imaging of interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma originating in the duodenum. Endoscopy 2011;43 Suppl 2 UCTN: E113-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Hirji SA, Senturk JC, Hornick J, Sonoda T, Bleday R. A rare case of interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma of the rectum: Review of histopathology and management strategy. BMJ Case Rep 2017;2017:bcr 2017221754.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
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