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   2014| January-June  | Volume 20 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 14, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Imperative role of dental pulp stem cells in regenerative therapies: A systematic review
Ramchandra Kabir, Manish Gupta, Avanti Aggarwal, Deepak Sharma, Anurag Sarin, Mohammed Zaheer Kola
January-June 2014, 20(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127092  PMID:24665194
Stem cells are primitive cells that can differentiate and regenerate organs in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. This has been a field of great clinical interest with immense possibilities of using the stem cells in regeneration of human organ those are damaged due to disease, developmental defects and accident. The knowledge of stem cell technology is increasing quickly in all medical specialties and in dental field too. Stem cells of dental origin appears to hold the key to various cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, but most avenues are in experimental stages and many procedures are undergoing standardization and validation. Long-term preservation of SHED cells or DPSC is becoming a popular consideration, similar to the banking of umbilical cord blood. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the adult multipotent cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. The multipotent nature of these DPSCs may be utilized in both dental and medical applications. A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, Embase) using keywords like "dental pulp stem cells", "regeneration", "medical applications", "tissue engineering". DPSCs appears to be a promising innovation for the re-growth of tissues however, long term clinical studies need to be carried out that could establish some authentic guidelines in this perspective.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Breast lumps: A 21-year single-center clinical and histological analysis
Gabriel E Njeze
January-June 2014, 20(1):38-41
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127111  PMID:24665202
Objective: To review the presentation and histological diagnosis of breast lumps of patients seen in Trans Ekulu Hospital Enugu Southeastern Nigeria from 1993 to 2013 in a period of 21 years. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study covering a period of 21 years. Case notes of patients containing clinical information and their histology reports were studied. Results: Only 38% of the patients came within 3 months of finding lumps in their breast. One hundred and thirty-seven patients (83%) had benign disease, i.e., fibroadenoma, mammary dysplasia, cysts, adenomas, tuberculosis, phyllodes tumor, mastitis, and lipoma. Only 16.9% i.e., 28 patients had breast cancer, out of which two females were in their 20s, and three were males. Conclusions: Benign breast diseases, i.e., fibroadenoma, fibroadenosis, cysts, adenomas, tuberculosis, phyllodes, mastitis, and lipoma are the commoner breast diseases in our locality.
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Determinants of mortality in chest trauma patients
Eyo E Ekpe, C Eyo
January-June 2014, 20(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127107  PMID:24665200
Background: Chest trauma is an important trauma globally accounting for about 10% of trauma admission and 25-50% of trauma death. Different types and severity of chest trauma in different subsets of patients with varying associated injuries result in differing outcomes measured with mortality. Early mitigation of poor prognostic factors could result in improved outcome, therefore the need to know such factors or determinants of mortality in chest trauma patients. Patients and Methods: Retrospective and prospective analysis of demographic details, socio-economic, clinical details, modified early warning signs (MEWS) score on presentation, investigation findings, treatment and outcome of chest trauma patients who presented to our cardiothoracic surgery unit was undertaken. Data were collected and were analyzed using WINPEPI Stone Mountain, Georgia: USD Inc; 1995 statistical software. Results: A total 149 patients with thoracic trauma were studied over a 5 year period constituting 40% of the unit workload. There were 121 males and 28 females (81.2% vs. 18.8%; m: f = 4:1) with age range from 7 to 76 years (mean: 37.42 ± 12.86 years) and about 55% aged 45 years or below and more blunt trauma than penetrating trauma (65.1% vs. 34.9%), but no statistical significance amongst the groups on outcome analysis. Sub-grouping of the 149 patients according to their on-admission MEWS score shows that 141 patients had scores of 9 and less and all survived while the remaining eight had scores >9 but all died. As independent variables, age, sex and type of chest injury did not prove to be correlated with mortality with P values of 0.468, 1.000 and 1.000 respectively. However presence of associated extra thoracic organ injury, high on-admission MEWS score >9, delayed presentation with injury to presentation interval longer than 24 h, and severe chest injury as characterized by bilateral chest involvement correlated positively with mortality with P values of 0.0003, 0.0001, 0.0293 and 0.0236 respectively. Conclusion: Associated extra thoracic organ injury, high on-admission MEWS score >9, late presentation beyond 24 h post trauma and severe chest injury with bilateral chest involvement were found to be determinants of mortality in chest trauma.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
An insight in to Paget's disease of bone
Robin Sabharwal, Shivangi Gupta, Shipra Sepolia, Rajat Panigrahi, Saumyakanta Mohanty, Santosh Kumar Subudhi, Manish Kumar
January-June 2014, 20(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127098  PMID:24665195
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common disorder which may affect one or many bones. Although many patients are asymptomatic, a variety of symptoms and complications may occur. PDB is a focal disorder of bone turnover characterized by excessive bone resorption coupled with bone formation. PDB begins with a period of increased osteoclastic activity and bone resorption, followed by increased osteoblast production of woven bone that is poorly mineralized. In the final phase of the disease process, dense cortical and trabecular bone deposition predominates, but the bone is sclerotic and poorly organized and lacks the structural integrity and strength of normal bone. This article briefly reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical radiographic and histological features of Paget's disease.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pilot study on laparoscopic surgery in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria
E Ray-Offor, PE Okoro, I Gbobo, AB Allison
January-June 2014, 20(1):23-25
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127104  PMID:24665198
Background: Video-laparoscopic surgery has long been practiced in western countries; however documented practice of this minimal access surgical technique are recently emanating from Nigeria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented study on laparoscopic surgery from the Niger Delta region. Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of laparoscopy as a useful tool for management of common surgical abdominal conditions in our environment. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective outcome study of all consecutive surgical patients who had laparoscopic procedures in general and pediatric surgery units of our institution from August 2011 to December 2012. Data on patient's age, gender, indication for surgery, duration of hospital stay and outcome of surgery were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 15 laparoscopic procedures were performed during this study period with age range of 2-65 years; mean: 32.27 ± 17.86 years. There were 11 males and four females. Six laparoscopic appendicectomies, one laparoscopy-assisted orchidopexy, five diagnostic laparoscopy ± biopsy, one laparoscopic trans-abdominal pre-peritoneal herniorrhaphy for bilateral indirect inguinal hernia and two laparoscopic adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction were performed. All were successfully completed except one conversion (6.7%) for uncontrollable bleeding in an intra-abdominal tumor. Conclusion: The practice of laparoscopic surgery in our environment is feasible and safe despite the numerous, but surmountable challenges. There is the need for adequate training of the support staff and a dedicated theatre suite.
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Pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries in a Nigerian Referral Centre
Samuel Udeabor, Victor I Akinmoladun, Adeola Olusanya, Ambrose Obiechina
January-June 2014, 20(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127105  PMID:24665199
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries seen in our environment. Methodology: This was a prospective analysis of trauma patients with midfacial injuries presenting at a referral center in South West Nigeria. In addition to socio-demographic data, the following information was also obtained: Mechanism of injuries, type of midfacial injuries, concomitant/associated injuries and treatment. Results: A total of 101 patients with midfacial injuries were involved. They were made up of 85 males and 16 females. The 20-29 year age group was mostly affected (44.6%) and the most common cause of midface injuries was road traffic accident (91.1%). The zygoma was fractured more than any other midfacial bone (46.0%). A total of 144 associated injuries were recorded among these patients, head and ocular injuries accounted for 49 (34%) and 35 (24.3%) respectively. The patients were mostly treated conservatively or by closed reduction. Conclusion: The rate of head and ocular injuries among patients with midfacial injury was high. Knowledge of these associated injuries provides useful strategies for patient care and prevention of further complications. A multidisciplinary approach is important for optimum management of these patients.
  2,768 160 -
Gallbladder stones following ileal resection for gangrenous intussusceptions: A follow-up study
Roland Iheanyichukwu Osuoji, Babajide Olawale Balogun, Olatunbosun Olabode Olofinlade
January-June 2014, 20(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127101  PMID:24665197
Background: Intussusceptions are the most common causes of bowel obstruction in infancy and childhood in this environment they present late, resulting in gangrene of the intussusception consequently resection of the affected bowel and a limited or extended right hemicolectomy (RH) to establish bowel continuity. Aim: The aim of the following study is to follow-up these children that had a limited ileal resection for gangrenous intussusceptions and document the formation of stones in their gallbladders. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 patients who had limited ileal resection during infancy for gangrenous intussusceptions were matched with sixteen patients who had manual reduction for viable intussusceptions during infancy. Both groups had ultrasound scans of their gallbladders to document the formation of stones in their gallbladders. Results: No gallbladder stones were found in both groups, however, one male child that had a resection and a RH for a gangrenous intussusception at the age of 4 months and was seen at an interval of 72 months had a thickened gallbladder on ultrasonography, another child, a female child operated on at the age of 6 months and seen at an interval of 57 months also had a thickened gallbladder on ultrasonography . Conclusion: Although no stones were seen, we suggest a prolonged follow-up of these patients with either periodic ultrasonography of the their gallbladders or with the periodic estimation of their serum bile acids.
  2,772 124 -
Early experiences with microvascular free tissue transfer in Lagos, Nigeria
Bolaji O Mofikoya, Andrew O Ugburo
January-June 2014, 20(1):35-37
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127108  PMID:24665201
Objectives: Microvascular free tissue transfer within our subregion is fraught with considerable challenges. We aim to highlight our experiences gained with our first fifteen cases of microvascular free tissue transfer at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. We believe our report will be useful to colleagues embarking on such reconstructions in similar settings. Materials and Methods: The clinical records of the first 15 cases of free flaps done at our center were reviewed. The indications for surgery, choice of flap, recipient vessels, duration of surgery and complications were noted. Results: Fifteen cases were done, 10 flaps survived, ten defects occurred following trauma while remaining five followed cancer resections. Anterolateral thigh and radial forearm flaps were the most common flap used. The mean duration of surgeries was 7.1 hours SD ± 1.10 hours. Our take back rate was 13.3%, with a salvage rate of 50%. Three flaps failed on account venous congestion while remaining two failed due to arterial occlusion. Conclusion: 66.67% free flap success rate recorded reflect our early experiences in our institution. We believe meticulous planning, careful vessel selection, close flap monitoring as well as improved infrastructural support can lead to much better success rates in microvascular reconstruction in our country.
  2,578 125 -
Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder phase I
Sunday Adoga Edaigbini, Ibrahim Zira Delia, Muhammad Balarabe Aminu
January-June 2014, 20(1):16-18
DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127100  PMID:24665196
Introduction: The conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires the use of equipment and devices like the oxygenator. The oxygenator comes in different makes and each manufacturer customizes the carrier or 'holder' of this device specific to their design. Aim: This paper presents an innovation designed to overcome the need to purchase a different holder for every oxygenator thereby cutting the cost. Materials and Methods: A sheet of iron measuring 1.9 cm (width) × 0.1 cm (thickness) was used to design the holder circular main frame. Another sheet measuring 2 cm (width) × 0.6 cm (thickness) × 24 cm (length) was used to construct a V-shaped handle with the arms of the V attached to the main frame 7 cm apart. At the narrow base of the handle is a latch requiring two 13-gauge screws to attach the holder to the heart-lung machine. Within the circumference of the main frame are four T-shaped side arms which grip the oxygenator; located at 2, 5, 7 and 11 O'clock positions. The stem of the T consist of a 0.6 cm (thickness) × 13 cm (length) rod drilled through the main frame. The cross of the T consists of variable lengths of the same sheet as the mainframe attached to the stem by a screw mechanism. At the base of the T, is attached a circular handle (4 cm in diameter) made of 0.4 cm iron rod. Result: An oxygenator holder which weighs 1.75 kg with a total length of 54 cm (the diameter of the mainframe is 30 cm). Its advantages include (i) affordability, (ii) materials are locally accessible, (iii) versatility (iv) reproducibility. The disadvantages include, (i) it requires some time to fit, (ii) caution is required in fitting the oxygenator to avoid breakage, (iii) a spanner is required to lock the latch. Conclusion: The concept of a universal holder is pertinent, especially in resource poor environments to avoid purchasing a new holder whenever the usual oxygenator common to the centre is unavailable. This device is amenable to further modifications to meet the unforeseen challenges.
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ABSTRACTS
Abstracts of papers presented at the 64 th scientific meeting of NSRS held at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria on December 6, 2013

January-June 2014, 20(1):42-46
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